Photocopying: Copyright Considerations
The 1978 Copyright Law permits limited reproduction of copyrighted material for classroom use, according to “Fair Use Guidelines.” The concept of “Fair Use” is open to interpretation – by a court of law. If there is any doubt whether a particular use of copied materials meets “Fair Use” criteria, consult a librarian. The library can also provide information on how to go about obtaining copyright permission.
I. Rules Governing “Fair Use” Photocopying for Education Purposes Have Evolved Since 1978:
Single Copies may be made by faculty and staff, of a book chapter; an article from a periodical or newspaper; a short story, essay, or poem; or charts, graphs, cartoons, or pictures. Entire works may be reproduced if they are out of print and “unobtainable at a fair price.”
Multiple copies may be made by faculty or staff of the following:
- One chart, graph, picture or cartoon per book or periodical issue;
- Prose excerpts of a work, up to 1,000 words or 10% of the work, whichever is less;
- Complete articles, stories, or essays, if they are under 2,500 words;
- Mixed illustrations and words, up to 10% of the original work; and
- Complete or excerpted poems, not exceeding 250 words on two pages.
- Limitations of multiple copying;
- There can be no more than 19 instances of multiple copying per course;
- The copies of a work are made for one course only, and the number of copies cannot exceed the number of students in the course;
- No more than one work of an author can be copied;
- No more than three works can be copied from a single anthology or collective work;
- Copying cannot be done to create or replace or substitute for existing anthologies or collective works;
- Copying the same item cannot be repeated from term to term;
- Copies cannot be sold except at cost; and
- “Consumable” works, e.g., workbook pages, standardized tests, etc., may not be reproduced under any circumstances.
Copyright Notices must be included in the reproduction of any work that is copied. These notices should read: Notice: This material may be protected by copyright law (Title 17, U.S. Code).